Dr. Rob Anda of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Dr. Vincent Felitti of Kaiser Permanente conducted a study of 17,300 mostly middle-class white Americans between 1995-1997. The study sought to ascertain if adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) contributed to long-term negative health outcomes in adulthood.
The survey asked 10 questions that focused on traumas experienced in childhood. These questions were arranged in three clusters around abuse, neglect, and family challenges.